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  • Course July 2022 advanced Arabic into English training course

    Attached is the original text plus the comments on the translator's work.

    I am posting as well the English versions here:

    Original translation by candidate
    Preamble
    The title of this study "Water Crises in the Arab Region" rises a preliminary question about the meaning of the term “crisis” which is mentioned in the context of the title. It is needed to provide a clear answer to that question as a starting point to introduce the historical, geographical and hydrologic considerations, as well as those derived from the international law within this chapter.
    The term "crises" as used in this study differs from that used in the international relationships, especially in its strategical dimension. And if there are areas of contact between the two terms, it is not hidden from a wise reader. The concept of "crisis" in its water related formula stems from the multi- dimensional and multi- level compound nature of the water problem in the region. In addition to the scarcity and limitation of water resources and the low quality of water in the Arab World, the gap between sources and needs in some of the neighboring countries, the regional ambition of others through the use of shared water resources, and other factors meet, intertwine and intersect, creating a number of dilemmas, problems and bottlenecks extended from the past through the present and which are expected to continue in the future.
    As the topic of the book focuses on the Arab region, the extensive exposure to the issue of water in the geographical neighboring countries seems inevitable. The Nile originates from the plateau of Lakes and the highlands of Ethiopia. The Tigris and The Euphrates originate from Turkey, and Tigris has some sources in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. The presence of Israel in the heart of the Arab region and sharing the Jordan River with Arab countries confirms the necessity of addressing the water crisis in the Arab region and reflections of that crises on its relations with the geographical neighboring countries, as well as the reflections of the ambitions and greed of those countries on the Arab crisis.
    If the previous paragraphs focused on the clarification of the study's title as a preliminary point to introduce the considerations forming the study's framework, the starting point of this framework is the introduction of a brief background, hoping that it will lead us to the other aspects.
    The Nile played a significant and major role in the history of Egypt, and its conditions were a reflection of the river's fluctuations. Therefore, monitoring the river and recording its level was a major work of the government, and all the measures of the Nile preserved at the present dated back to the late Pharaonic eras or to the Ptolemaic-Roman era and were built in the precincts of the temples, as they were used to deliver flood waters to the temples in addition to its original function in measuring the levels of the Nile.


    First Edits
    Prelude
    The title of this study "Water Crises in the Arab Region" raises a preliminary question about the meaning of the term “crisis”, which is mentioned in the title, providing context for the study. It is needed to provide a clear answer to that question as a starting point to introduce the historical, geographical and hydrologic considerations, as well as those derived from the international law within this chapter.
    The term "crisis" as used in this study differs from that used in the international relationships, especially in its strategical dimension. If there are areas of contact between the two uses of terms, it is not hidden from a wise reader. The concept "crisis" when it comes to water issues stems from the multi-dimensional and multi- level nature of the water problem in the region. In addition to the scarcity and limitation of water resources and the low quality of water in the Arab World, the gap between sources and needs in some of neighboring countries, the regional designs of others through the use of shared water resources, and other factors meet, intertwine and intersect, creating a number of dilemmas, problems and bottlenecks extended from the past through the present and are expected to continue in the future.
    As the topic of the book focuses on the Arab region, the extensive exposure to the issue of water in the geographical neighboring countries seems inevitable. The Nile originates from the plateau of Lakes and the highlands of Ethiopia. The Tigris and The Euphrates originate from Turkey, and Tigris has some sources in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. The presence of Israel in the heart of the Arab region and its sharing of the Jordan River with Arab countries confirm the necessity of addressing the water crisis in the Arab region and its repercussions on its relations with the geographical neighboring countries, as well as the consequences of the designs of those countries on the Arab crisis.
    If the previous paragraphs focused on the clarification of the study's title as a preliminary point to introduce the considerations forming the study's framework, the starting point of this framework is the introduction of a brief background, hoping that it will lead us into other aspects.
    The Nile has played a significant role in the history of Egypt, and its conditions were a reflection of the river's fluctuations. Therefore, monitoring the river and recording its level were a major work of the government, and all the measurements of the Nile preserved at the present dated back to the late Pharaonic eras or to the Ptolemaic-Roman era and were built in the precincts of the temples, as they were used to deliver flood waters to the temples in addition to its original function in measuring the levels of the Nile.


    Second Edits
    Prelude

    The title of the study, "Water Crises in the Arab Region", raises a preliminary issue regarding the meaning of the word "crisis", which is mentioned in the title, providing context for the study. We need to answer that question clearly as a starting point for introducing historical, geographical and hydrologic considerations, as well as those derived from international law.
    As used in this study, the term "crisis" differs from that used in international relationships, particularly in its strategic aspect. Whether there are areas of overlap between the two terms is not obscured to a prudent reader. The concept "crisis", when it comes to water issues, dervies from the multidimensional and multi-level nature of the water issue in the region. Aside from the scarcity and limited availability of water resources, as well as the low quality of water in the Arab World, gaps between supply and demand in some neighboring countries, regional designs through shared water resources, and other factors intersect, creating a number of dilemmas, problems and bottlenecks that have existed from the past into the present and are likely to persist into the future.
    As the book focuses on the Arab region, it is inevitable that the issue of water will be extensively addressed in the broader context of geographically neighboring countries. The Nile originates from the plateau of the Lakes and the highlands of Ethiopia. The Tigris and the Euphrates, by the same token, originate in Turkey, and the Tigris has some sources in the Zagros Mountains in Iran. The fact that Israel lies at the center of the Arab region and shares its Jordan River with Arab countries confirms the importance of addressing the water crisis in the Arab region as well as the repercussions of Israeli decisions on its relations with its geographical neighbors.
    In the previous paragraphs, the study's title was clarified as a preliminary point for introducing the considerations providing the study's framework. In this context, the point of departure is the introduction of a brief background, in the hope that it will give us insight into other aspects.
    Throughout Egypt's history, the Nile has played an important role in reflecting the river's fluctuations. Monitoring the Nile and recording its level was therefore a major government function. All the measurements of the Nile preserved today date back to the Ptolemaic-Roman period, and they were constructed within the temple precincts in addition to their original purpose in measuring the Nile's level.


    Tutor's own translation
    Prelude
    Considering that the title of this study is "Water crisis in the Arab region," a preliminary question must be raised regarding the implications of the word crisis. The answer to this question can serve as a springboard for discussion of historical, geographical, and hydraulic contexts as well as international legal issues.
    As the reader will see, the concept of crisis used in this study differs considerably from that used in international relations, particularly when it comes to its strategic significance, but a comparison between the two cannot be avoided. In the context of water studies, the concept of crisis refers to the multifaceted and multilayered nature of the water problem in the region. In addition to the scarcity and poor quality of water in the Arab world, the gulf between supply and demand in some geographically adjacent countries is compounded by the regional aspirations of others, creating a number of problems and congestions that stretch from the past into the present and seem likely to persist in the future.
    Despite the fact that the book focuses on the Arab region, it is essential to address the issue of water in countries that are geographically adjacent. The Nile, after all, originates in Ethiopia's Lake Plateau and the highlands, in the same manner that Tigris and Euphrates originate in Turkey, with the latter’s main feeders springing in Iran's Zagros Mountains. Israel's position in the heart of the Arab region and its sharing of the Jordan River with Arab countries highlights the need for addressing the water crisis in the Arab region and examining the implication of that crisis on Israel's relationship with geographically neighboring countries, and the influence of its designs on the Arab water crisis.
    Throughout the previous paragraphs, I have focused mainly on clarifying the title in order to establish the basis for discussing the theoretical framework. The first thing I would like to do, however, is to provide a brief historical background in order to smooth the way to the rest of the discussion.
    Throughout Egypt's history, the Nile has played a significant role in its development, which can explain why monitoring the river's fluctuations and recording its level have been important responsibilities of the government. I note, here, that all archived measurements of Nile levels at the present time date back to later Pharaonic eras or the Ptolemaic-Roman era, preserved in the temples. Measurements were not only used to convey water to the temples but also to determine Nile water levels.
    Attached Files

  • #2
    Homework 2.
    Topic: Globalsiation.
    Genre: Academic study.
    Deadline: Sunday 17 July.
    Attached Files

    Comment


    • #3
      Prelude

      “Arab region water crisis”, this study’s title raises a preliminary question on the actual meaning of the mentioned term “crisis”. This term requires providing a clear answer to be a starting point to introduce historical, geographical, and hydraulic considerations in addition to the emanating considerations from the international law in this chapter.
      The concept of "crisis" used in the of this study differs from that used in international relations, especially in its strategic dimension, and it is not a secret for the readers acumen if there are areas for contiguity between the two concepts.

      The concept of "crisis" mentioned in these water issues stems from the complex multidimensional and multilevel nature of the region's water problem water resources in addition to the scarcity and limited water resources and the low quality of water in the Arab world.
      The gap between resources and the needs in some geographical neighbouring countries and the regional ambition of others using water joints, as well as other factors, all combined and intertwined create dilemmas, problems, and bottlenecks from the past through the present that are expected to continue in the future.

      As this book's main theme focuses on the Arab region, it seems inevitable to make an excessive exposure to the issue of water in geographical neighbouring States.
      The Nile River springs from the Lake Plateau and the highlands of Ethiopia, the Tigris and Euphrates spring from Turkey, as well as the Tigris River has headwaters from the Zagros Bayran mountains.
      Moreover, Israel presence in the heart of the Arab region and sharing Jordan river with other Arab countries makes it imperative to address water crisis in the Arab region and its consequences on relations with neighbouring countries, as well as the implications of the aspirations and greed of these countries on the Arab crisis.

      While the foregoing paragraphs focused on clarifying the title of the study as a prelude to raising the considerations that are problematic in the framework of the study, the starting point of this framework is to provide a brief historical picture that might easily lead us to address other aspects.
      As historically known, River Nile has played an important role as its fluctuations impacted Egypt’s status. Therefore, the monitoring of the river and the registration of its proportion was a major function of the Government. Also, all the Nile metrics preserved nowadays date back to the late Pharaoh or the Ptolemaic-Roman era, built on the temple campus, where they were used to deliver floods water to the temples, as well as their original function of measuring level scales.

      Comment


      • #4
        Outline – Entrance to Water Resources in Arab Region
        Preface

        This study title “Water Crisis in Arab Region” brings into minds a primary question on what term “Crisis” refers to within the title context. It is essential to provide an obvious answer to this question as starting point to pose Historical, Geographic and Hydraulic considerations besides those stemming from International Law within framework of this chapter.
        The “crisis” concept used in this study framework differs from that used in international relationships especially regarding its strategic dimension. However, there is a joint point between two concepts which talented reader can recognize. “Crisis” concept in water context is generated from the multi dimensions and multi levels structure of water problem in the region. Besides issues like limited and scarce water resources in addition to water poor quality, we come across a gap between resources and demand in some of the geographic neighboring countries and regional ambitions of others to use joint aqua resources and other factors that gather, interwind, and cross creating many problems, dilemmas and bottlenecks extending from the past passing present days and are expected to go on in future.
        Although the book’s subject focus primarily on Arab Region, but it is inevitable to intensify focus on water issue in geographic neighboring countries. The Nile originates from Plateau lakes and Ethiopian hills, Tigris and Euphrates originate in Turkey, and never to forget mentioning Tigris sources in Zagros Mountain in Iran. Israel, in the heart of the Arab Region shares Jordan River with Arab countries, the issue which assures necessity to discuss water crisis is Arab Region and its reflections on relations with neighboring countries, as well as reflections of those states’ greed ambitions on Arab crisis.
        The previous paragraphs focused on clarifying the study title intent as induction point to pose considerations that form study framework. However, the starting point in this framework lies in outlining historical brief hoping it leads us smoothly to other aspects.
        The Nile has been playing significant and major role in Egypt history, and the county circumstances have been a mirror to the river fluctuations. For this reason, one of the government basic tasks is to monitor it and register its levels. All Nilometers which we have nowadays go back to Pharaoh or Ptolemaic- Roman Periods, they were built in temples grounds and were used to conduct excess flood water to these temples in addition to their basic aim which is measuring Nile levels.

        Comment


        • #5




          General Framework- Introduction to Water Resources in the Arab Region

          prelude




          This study's title, "Water Crises in the Arab Region," begs the question of what exactly a "crisis" is, as it is cited in the title and provides background information for the study. To introduce the historical, geographical, and hydrologic concerns as well as those derived from international law inside this chapter, it is necessary to give a clear response to that question.

          The word "crisis" as it is employed in this study is different from how it is used in international relations, particularly in terms of its strategic component. A savvy reader will not be misled if there are points of interaction between the two applications of the term. The idea of a "crisis" when it comes to water concerns arises from how complex and multifaceted the local water issue is. A number of conundrums, issues, and bottlenecks have existed from the past through the present and are anticipated to persist in the future due to the scarcity and limitation of water resources, the poor quality of water in the Arab World, the gap between sources and needs in some neighbouring countries, the regional designs of others through the use of shared water resources, and other factors that meet, intertwine, and intersect.

          The book's concentration on the Arab world makes substantial discussion of the problem of water in the geographically adjacent nations appear natural. Ethiopia's highlands and Lakes Plateau are the source of the Nile. Both the Tigris and the Euphrates flow into the Persian Gulf from Turkey, and the Tigris has some tributaries in Iran's Zagros Mountains. Israel's location in the middle of the Arab world and its shared Jordan River with Arab nations support the argument that the Arab water crisis must be addressed in order to prevent further damage to relations between the region and its geographical neighbours as well as the effects of those nations' plans on the Arab crisis.
          The book's concentration is on the Arab world, but it devotes a lot of space to the global water crisis. The introduction of a brief background is the starting point of this framework, with the hope that it will lead us into other aspects, in contrast to the previous paragraphs, which focused on the clarification of the study's title as a preliminary point to introduce the considerations forming the study's framework.
          The conditions of the Nile were a reflection of the river's variations and had a profound impact on Egypt's history. As a result, keeping track of the river's level and monitoring it were important government tasks. All of the measurements of the Nile that have survived today date to the late Pharaonic or Ptolemaic-Roman eras and were constructed within the boundaries of the temples because, in addition to their original purpose of measuring the Nile's levels, they were also used to deliver floodwaters to the temples.

          Comment


          • #6
            General Framework - Introduction to Water Resources in the Arab region

            Preface

            The title of this study, "Water Crisis in the Arab Region," raises a preliminary question about the meaning of the term "Crisis," mentioned in the title. A clear answer to this question is required as a starting point to present the historical, geographical and hydraulic considerations as well as those stemming from the international law under this chapter

            The concept of “Crisis” used in this study differs from that used in international relations, especially in its strategic dimension, in spite of the fact that there are obvious intersections between the two concepts. When it comes to the water issue, the concept “Crisis” stems from the multidimensional and multi-level structural nature of the water problem in the region including, the scarcity and limited availability of water resources and low water quality in the Arab world. In addition, the gap between the resources and needs in some geographical neighboring countries, the regional ambition of other counties to use the shared water resources, and other factors combine and intersect to create a number of dilemmas, problems, and bottlenecks extending from the past passing present days and are expected to continue in the future.

            While the main focus of the book is on the Arab region, intensified exposure to the water issue in neighboring countries seems to be inevitable. The Nile rises in the lake plateau and the highlands of Ethiopia. The Tigris and Euphrates rise in Turkey. In addition, Tigris has sources in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. Israel's presence in the heart of the Arab region and how it shares the Jordan River with Arab countries also emphasize the need to address the water crisis in the Arab region and its repercussions on its relations with the geographical neighboring countries, as well as the repercussions of those countries' aspirations and greed on the Arab crisis.

            While the previous paragraphs focused on clarifying the content of the title of the study as a preliminary point for introducing the considerations forming the framework of the study, the starting point in this framework is to provide a brief historical overview that may lead us easily into all aspects.


            The Nile has played an important and major role in the history of Egypt whose conditions were a reflection of the river's fluctuations. For this reason, the monitoring of the river and the registration of its level were a major task of the government. All the Nile measurements survived today date back to the late Pharaonic or Ptolemaic-Roman era and are built in the sanctuaries of the temples where they were used to deliver floodwater to the temples and measure the levels of the Nile, which is its original function.

            Comment


            • #7
              General framework-introduction to water resources in the Arab region

              Introduction

              The title of this study "Water crisis in the Arab region" raises a preliminary question about the meaning of the term "crisis" aforementioned in the title. It is necessary to provide a clear answer to this question as a starting point to introduce historical, geographical and hydrologic considerations, as well as considerations from international law within this chapter.
              The term "crisis" used in this study differs from that used in international relations, especially in the strategic dimension. However, there are areas of contact between the two uses that are not hidden from the reader's wisdom. The term of "crisis" derives from the multidimensional and multilevel composition of the water problem in the region. Apart from the shortage and limitations of water resources and the low quality of water in the Arab world, the gap between resources and needs in same of neighboring countries, and the regional designs of others through the use of shared water resources, and other factors combine, intertwine, and intersects with the creation of a number of dilemmas, problems and bottlenecks extending from the past through the present, which expected to be continued in the future.
              If the topic of the book is mainly focused on the Arab region, the heavy exposure to the issue of water in the geographical neighborhood countries seems inevitable. The Nile river originates from the plateau of lakes and highlands of Ethiopia. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers also originate from Turkey, also Tigris River has its headwaters in the Zagros Mountains of Iran. The presence of Israel in the middle of the Arab region and its sharing of the Jordan River with Arab countries also confirms the need to address the water crisis in the Arab region and the implications of crisis on the relations with neighboring countries, besides the repercussion of the ambitions and designs of those countries on the Arab crisis.
              The previous paragraphs clarification the content of the study title as a preliminary point to put forward the considerations that have been formed for the study, the starting point in this framework is to provide a brief historical overview that may easily lead us to other aspects.

              **Sorry, but I couldn't finish the text**

              Comment


              • #8
                Globalization: Any contemporary Islamic response?

                New Liberalism, known as world order, is in fact a new war to invade new territories. It certainly does not mean the end of the Third World War, or the Cold War and that the world has overcome bipolarity and discovered stability once again under the victorious side.

                While there was a defeated side, the Socialist Military, it was difficult to determine which side won. The United States or the European Union in trade or Japan or the three together?
                Thanks to computer and financial markets and in accordance with their wishes, neoliberalism imposes its laws and principles on the planet.


                Globalization is only a holistic extension of all life aspect’s logic.
                The United States, formerly the ruler of the economy, is now remotely governed by the dynamism of fiscal superpower: free trade. This logic benefited from the functionality of access resulting from the evolution of communications to handle all aspects of activity in the social sphere, resulting on a comprehensive war.

                Culture in the 1950s and 1960s being one of the stages of third world, proponents of globalization supporters hope to abolish, consisted of two types. These types are the dominant imperialist culture and the liberalizing national culture, and those influenced by the ideology of globalization want to create a new form of culture: one of openness, renewal or withdrawal and stagnation.

                Today, we are told that the world is converging, computers and fax have abolished distances creating and earth have come a global village in which we have become connected in an unpresented manner, however, there is a feeling that totally overrule it.
                The feeling that intolerance and separation constitute modern life. If something is diminished, it is the sense of existence that the modern self-suffers. Psychologists determine that levels of frustration and anxiety are high, and that for most people, the network of friends and thousands of close family members and relationships within society have shrunk to a fraction of previous generations.

                Knowledge that was available, free of charge and for the benefit of society have now become confidential and designed for the sake of materialistic gains. Scholars who used to insist on scientific independence, they are planning scientific curricula in accordance with what is agreed with the funded enterprises.
                Professors who used to lecture have become listed on the payrolls of the companies they work for and for whom they do marketing researches in universities laboratories.
                Moreover, universities pay reduced fees to engage associate professors and as for universities presidents who were the thoughtful leaders of those institutions are now represented by itinerant traders.

                Comment


                • #9
                  Globalization: Is there a contemporary Islamic argument?

                  As a matter of fact, neoliberalism-being a world order-is a newly started war that aims to take over/dominate new territories. By all means, neoliberalism doesn’t mean the end of World War III, the cold war, or that the world has overcome bipolarity fulfilling stability under the shadow of the victorious.

                  The Soviet bloc, known as the defeated side, makes it a challenge to decide who is exactly the winning side. Could it be the US? Or the European Union from a commercial point of view? Or Japan? or all of the three countries.
                  Due to computer and financial markets, neoliberalism continues to impose its laws as well as its tents on this planet according to the latter wishes.

                  Comment


                  • #10
                    Is there a contemporary Islamic answer to globalisation?

                    As a world system, neoliberalism is a fresh fight to invade new places. It signifies the conclusion of the Third World War or the Cold War, and the reestablishment of global stability under the victor.

                    Was the United States the victor, given that it was difficult to tell which side had defeated the socialist military? Or the EU in terms of trade? Or Japan? Or all three jointly? Through the use of computers and the financial markets, and in accordance with their desires, Neoliberalism globally imposes its own rules and ideals.



                    Globalization is an extension of the ideology of neoliberalism to all spheres of life. For instance, the United States, which formerly dominated the economy, is now remote-controlled by the financial superpower: free trade. This ideology has utilised the rise of telecommunications' accessibility to influence every element of societal life. As a result, an all-out conflict has ensued.

                    Comment

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